A Comparative Study of Yuman Consonantism by Alan Campbell Wares

By Alan Campbell Wares

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G. sayi [sai-] 'buzzard', wamdl [oamál] 'broom'. VIII. THE PHONEMES OF DIEGUEÑO The segmental phonemes of Diegueño are : Consonants : ρ m Semiconsonants : Vowels : t c k s s χ η ny ly 1 r kw xw y i e w u a Due to the limited amount of data available in Diegueño, the above phonemicization must be considered tentative. The phonemic system is similar to that of Cocopa, with the exception that the retroflexed stop and spirant, and the unpalatalized lateral, are lacking in Diegueño. The glottal stop is posited only tentatively as a phoneme here.

THE PHONEMES OF KILIWA Of all the Yuman languages, Kiliwa, on the southern periphery of Yuman speech, is the most divergent both in vocabulary and in phonology. A glance at a comparative vocabulary shows the Kiliwa word, in many cases, to be distinct from the words having the same meaning in the other languages. For example, hpép 'bean' is unrelated to Ρ marvk and its cognates, and 1hák 'cow' bears only a faint resemblance to Ρ kwá'lí. and its cognates. In the numeral system this divergence of forms is especially noticeable; only two of the numerals from one to ten are clearly cognate with the corresponding numerals in the other languages.

Examples of Walapai vowel phonemes are : high front /i/ : 'il 'worm', sit 'one' ; mid front /e/: 'él 'louse', hé' 'tail'; low central /a/: 'âw 'grandchild', mât 'earth'; mid back /o/: 'óp 'no', cok 'juniper'; high back /u/:yú' 'eye', /^w/'long'. Vowel length is illustrated by the contrasts between the short and long vowel in the following pairs of words : pik 'dead', Oi'k 'to drink' ; hé' 'tail', sé"' 'buzzard' ; pá' 'arrow, bullet', pâ·' 'person, man' ; uri»â' 'road', nvfr' 'sun' ; yo' 'tooth', iyó ' 'willow' ; yú' 'eye', iyú•' 'owl'.

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