A Grammar of Classical Japanese by Akira Komai

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It presents the segments in parallel distribution in syllable onset position before all vowels. wav). 19 But there are also others that have such a segment as an allophone of a plain pre-nasalised stop. This includes Tape which has a trilled allophone before /u/ and /ə/ and word-finally after /ə/ and /o/ (Crowley 2006d: 101) and Neve’ei which has a trilled variant of the prenasalised alveolar stop word finally (Musgrave 2007: 7). While most Nahavaq speakers today do not have a prenasalised apical trill at all, it is clear that in the recent past, this sound was commonly used in Nahavaq, and it is probable that it was an independent phoneme which has since merged into /nd/.

Others always use a fricative variant. βjen], ‘3SG-take ID’. A similar pattern of non-distinction of labial obstruents can be seen in Tape where the labial fricative and voiceless plosive are only differentiated in non-final position (Crowley 2006d: 102). Prenasalised stops are being lost in coda position in Nahavaq. 2). For example, /kinaŋɡ/ ‘1SG’ is pronounced [kinaŋɡ] by older speakers but [kinaŋ] by younger speakers. 29 Only in reduplicated roots are there many examples (/sumbw-sumbw/ ‘DUP-sit’, /limbjlimbj/ ‘DUProll’).

DU-go’ is realised as [duβjej]. However, most of the time, even when I cannot perceive the initial nasal phase, on close examination of a sound file, I find that there is a short nasal period before release. 362]. In a coda position, the nasal phase is always audible, but the release may not be. 626]). Prenasalised stops in word-internal coda positions are rare. 685]. 392] where the /mbw/ precedes a voiceless consonant. Younger speakers do not have prenasalised stops in coda position. 2). 5. Bilabial trill Either of the prenasalised labial stops can have a trilled allophone before /u/.

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