A grammar of the Malayan language by William Marsden

By William Marsden

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1 Vowels 11 It can occur between any consonant clusters consisting of obstruents or nasals. [1] should appear obligatorily when the first element of such cluster is the onset of the syllable and the Ă second element is an obstruent as in [p1 £keĂ£] ‘I hear’. Ă The usual realisation of £Ďkomna ‘vegetable’ is [kom £naĂ£], and its syllabification is clear when it is pronounced syllable by syllable. Yet, a short transitional [1] is heard sometimes, if Ă not very often, as in [kom1 £naĂ£]. This sound is often written with the letter ‘i’ by the speakers, but the following minimal pairs confirm that the distinction should be made between /i/ and ∅ ([1]).

2 Consonants Word-internal /g/ appears when a person-number suffix which ends with a nasal consonant is followed by a mood suffix which starts with /k/ as in the following. (20) a. {£Ďkor-pn-ke} (leave-1PL-IND) → £Ďkorpge ‘we leave’ b. ’ c. {£Ďmol-n-kal} (stay-2SG-LOC) → £Ďmogal ‘where you stay’ In contrast, apart from loanwords, the voiceless non-prenasalised counterpart /k/ does not occur word-internally after a nasal. e-deletion of indicative verbs often results in a word with /g/ or /gw/ in the utterancefinal position.

N ge £=koĂ£peĂ£] ‘girls’ When it follows a word of a falling tone like (93a), this clitic has a high pitch on all the syllables. But in (93b) and (93c), it has a pitch pattern starting lower than the last pitch of the preceding word and falling a little more, [koĂ£peĂ£]. This pattern is different from those we have seen so far. It occurs when a clitic follows a word that is not of a falling tone, and from this point on I will call this a clitic-type tone. Another characteristic feature of this type is when hosts of a rising tone are pronounced in isolation, they usually do not end at a very high pitch as in [aĂ£palĂ£], but that when they are followed by a clitic, they always end at a Ă high pitch as in [aĂ£pal £].

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