By Sevket Pamuk
This quantity examines the financial heritage of a giant empire situated on the crossroads of intercontinental exchange from the fourteenth century until eventually the tip of global battle I. It covers all areas of the empire from the Balkans via Anatolia, Syria, Egypt and the Gulf to the Maghrib. the results of economic advancements for social and political background also are mentioned during the quantity. this is often an incredible and pathbreaking booklet through some of the most uncommon financial historians within the box.
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This quantity examines the financial historical past of a giant empire positioned on the crossroads of intercontinental alternate from the fourteenth century till the top of worldwide conflict I. It covers all areas of the empire from the Balkans via Anatolia, Syria, Egypt and the Gulf to the Maghrib. the results of economic advancements for social and political background also are mentioned in the course of the quantity.
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Additional info for A Monetary History of the Ottoman Empire
Introduction 13 ideal social order and balances between social groups such as the peasantry, guilds and the merchants. The sultan and the bureaucracy were placed at the top of this social order. There was some ¯exibility in this view. The ideal of what constituted this traditional order and the social balances may have changed over time with changes in the economy and society. The government took care to preserve as much as possible the prevailing order and the social balances including the structure of employment and production.
Hennequin, ``Nouveaux ApercËus sur l'Histoire Monetaire de l'Egypte au Moyen Age,'' Annales Islamologiques, Institut FrancËais d'ArcheÂologie Orientale du Caire, 12 (1974), 179±215; Bates, ``Islamic Numismatics,'' 1±16; 2±18 and 3±21. For a brief but insightful discussion of the importance of numismatics and metrology for the historiography of Islamic societies, also see R. Stephen Humphreys, Islamic History, a Framework for Inquiry, revised edition (Princeton University Press, 1991), 49±53. John Masson Smith Jr.
Along with rising European in¯uence in the world markets, these coins became the globally recognized standards and means of exchange during the seventeenth century. While rulers and states exercised their powers by trying to collect seigniorage by coining a higher value of precious metals than the amount they paid for them and by regulating the relative values in coins of gold, silver, and billon, actions by individuals in the private realm contributed just as much to the development of money and monetary systems.