By R. M. W. Dixon, Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald
The experiences during this quantity recommend that each language has an adjective type, yet those range in personality and in dimension. In its grammatical homes, an adjective classification might beas just like nouns, or to verbs, or to either, or to neither.ze. while in a few languages the adjective type is big and will be freely extra to, in others it's small and closed. with only a dozen or so participants. The ebook will curiosity students and complex scholars of language typology and of the syntax and semantics of adjectives.
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Extra info for Adjective Classes: A Cross-Linguistic Typology (Explorations in Linguistic Typology)
In other languages, verbs allow some modifiers which adjectives lack, and adjectives permit some which verbs lack. For example: • In Vietnamese (Nguyen 1987: 791), only adjectives can be preceded by rat 'very' and khdt 'rather', and only verbs can occur with the exhortative particle hay. • In Chamorro (Austronesian; Topping 1973: 231), only verbs can take a modifier of manner, and only adjectives may take an intensifies • In Kamaiura (Tupi-Guarani branch of Tupi family; Seki 2000: 67), adjectives differ from verbs in that (a) verbs but not adjectives can occur in the circumstantial mode; (b) in indicative, exhortative, and imperative moods, adjectives take pronominal proclitics while verbs take pronominal prefixes; (c) the gerund is marked by -ram on a verb but by -m on an adjective.
DERIVATION-big 'he/she is very angry (more than is appropriate)' In summary, rui may only be used in a predicate which includes an adjective. The adjective may either be predicate head, as in (12), or the nucleus of an adverbal modifier, as in va'a-levu greatly' (based on levu 'big') in (13'). Another recurrent criterion concerns reduplication possibilities. In Chinese (Xu 1988), a verb when reduplicated carries the meaning 'do a little bit', for example: (14) dong 'to move' dong dong 'to move a little' In contrast, when an adjective is reduplicated, the semantic effect is 'intensification of the quality', as in: (15) hong 'red' honghong 'vividly red' In Qiang (see Chapter 13), reduplication usually signifies reciprocity for verbs but either plurality or intensification or both for adjectives (depending on the formal nature of the reduplication).
An adjective may modify a noun in an NP, may occur in a comparative constriction, and maybe complement in a verbless (copula-type) construction. (3) Mam (Mayan family). Although adjectives (and also nouns) can function as intransitive predicate, they take none of the TAM suffixes available to verbs; adjectives share no significant properties with nouns. Nora England provides a full and insightful account in Chapter 5 below. 7. Languages with restricted functional possibilities for adjectives As described in §3, in the great majority of languages adjectives have two canonical functions: (a) in a statement that something has a certain property, coded through the adjective functioning either as intransitive predicate or as copula complement; (b) as a specification that helps focus on the referent of the head noun in an NP, the adjective functioning as modifier to the head.