Adolescent Problems - Guide for Teachers, Parents, by D. Nicolson, H. Ayers

By D. Nicolson, H. Ayers

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Teachers may unconsciously idealise their pupils or students, seeing them as better than others. ● Teachers faced with extreme aggressiveness in pupils or students may unconsciously feel an equally aggressive and punitive reaction towards them. ● Teachers may have unconscious feelings that they are able magically to cure or rescue their pupils or students from their difficulties. Projective techniques Projective techniques are designed to reveal the symbolic and metaphorical meanings and the feelings which inhabit the unconscious of individuals.

As an example, an adolescent girl is rejected by her boyfriend, antecedent event (A); this leads her to the irrational belief that she is unattractive and that no other boys will ever like her again, event (B), and as a consequence becomes depressed, event (C). The intervention to remedy this problem of depression proceeds as follows: first, the event that precipitates the girl’s irrational belief is identified and clarified; second, the specific negative self-statements the girl makes are also identified along with the underlying irrational beliefs; and finally, the girl is helped to challenge those irrational self-statements through a process of analysis, disputation and substitution of positive for negative self-statements.

As individuals grow or develop, particular needs arise. An individual has a need for positive regard and also self-regard. Positive regard includes warmth, respect, sympathy and acceptance. Experiencing self-regard depends on positive regard shown by others. If the positive regard of others has been selective or conditional, then conditions of worth become operative. Self-regard becomes dependent solely on meeting the demands and wishes of others. Individuals who have become preoccupied with meeting conditions of worth will not possess self-confidence in decision-making and are said to be lacking an inter- 32 Psychodynamic approach nalised locus of evaluation.

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