Allies with the Infidel: The Ottoman and French Alliance in by Christine Isom-Verhaaren

By Christine Isom-Verhaaren

In 1543, the Ottoman fleet seemed off the coast of France to bombard and lay siege to the town of great. The operation, below the command of Admiral Barbarossa, got here based on a request from François I of France for the help of Sultan Süleyman the extraordinary in France’s fight opposed to Charles V, the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain. This army alliance among mutual "infidels", the Christian French King and the Muslim Sultan, aroused excessive condemnation on spiritual grounds from the Habsburgs and their supporters as an aberration from authorised international relations. stories of the Crusades have been, in spite of everything, nonetheless greatly alive in Europe and an alliance with "the Turk" appeared unthinkable to many. Allies with the Infidel locations the occasions of 1543 and the following wintering of the Ottoman fleet in Toulon within the context of the ability politics of the 16th century. hoping on modern Ottoman and French resources, it offers the realpolitik of international relations with "infidels" within the early sleek period. the result's crucial interpreting for college students and students of ecu historical past, Ottoman reports, and of family among the Christian and Islamic worlds.

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François promised to join in the war against the Ottoman Empire and to give Charles financial support for this purpose. 38 In spite of the Holy League, the Ottomans successfully defeated the Venetians on land and sea in 1538. Hayreddin Pasha won the battle of Preveza, which was significant because the Ottomans defeated the combined fleets of Venice and Doria, the only ones capable of opposing them in the Mediterranean. 39 François I’s commitment to the Ottoman-French alliance was based on his own interests, while Süleyman always found it advantageous to maintain an alliance that contributed to divisions among the Christian powers.

Ferrante, king of Naples, asked for, but did not receive, aid from his fellow Italian rulers to eject the Ottomans from Otranto. But Otranto was easily recaptured by papal and Neapolitan forces when Mehmed II died in 1481 because of the succession struggle between his sons, Bayezid and Cem. Cem unwisely fled to Rhodes after his defeat by Bayezid, whereupon the Knights of Rhodes seized the diplomatic opportunity offered to them to threaten the sultan with his brother. Diplomacy and alliances during the first part of Bayezid’s reign (1481–1512), when his brother was a captive in France and Rome, led to increased Ottoman interest in and diplomacy with Christian lands beyond Italy.

Although popes continued to promote crusades, after 1494 they feared a new threat to Christian Europe, the rivalry between France and Spain for control of Italy, far more than an Ottoman conquest of the peninsula. The popes correctly perceived that this rivalry would transform Italy into a battlefield. Beginning in 1494 French kings fought to enforce their dynastic claims in Italy: Charles VIII (1483–98) asserted his claims to Naples and Louis XII (1498–1515) and François I (1515–47) claimed the duchy of Milan.

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